With indoor air pollution being the second biggest killer and with about 1.3 million Indians dying of it every year, India is staring a crisis in the face. The degradation of air quality inside our homes poses a grave threat because an enclosed space enables the rapid build-up of pollutants, which can then reach alarmingly high levels.
Millions of people in India are dependent on biomass as a fuel. Wood, dung, charcoal and crop residue are all used as domestic cooking fuel. As most of the cooking is done indoors with poor environments having no proper ventilation, more than a million people get affected.
Biomass as fuel is not the only cause of air pollution; there are others. To name a few:
Tobacco Smoke: Smoke exhaled by a smoker or coming from the end of cigarettes, cigars or pipes.
Pesticides: Every day people are being exposed to pesticides inside their homes. It is believed that almost 80% of exposure to pesticides happens inside our homes. A measurable level of up to 12 pesticides can be detected in the indoor space.
Household Products: Cleaning products, paints, varnishes and hobby products are among the few products that contain organic chemical pollutants, which are released during usage and storage.
Biological Contaminants: Mildew, mold, bacteria, viruses, animal dander etc. grow in damp warm environments or are brought to the house from outside.
Combustion: More than 3 billion people worldwide depend on solid fuels like wood and coal for their energy requirements. Unvented gas space heaters, fireplaces and gas stoves emit carbon monoxide, small particles and nitrogen dioxide.
Sources and Potential Health Effects of Indoor Air Pollutants
|Pollutant||Major Indoor Sources||Potential Health Effects*|
|Asbestos||Damaged or deteriorating insulation, fireproofing, and acoustical materials||Asbestosis, lung cancer, mesothelioma, and other cancers|
|Biological Agents (House Dust Mites, Animal Dander, Mold, Bacteria, Viruses)||House dust; pets; bedding; poorly maintained air conditioners, humidifiers and dehumidifiers; wet or moist structures (e.g., due to plumbing leaks)||Allergic reactions; asthma symptoms; eye, nose, and throat irritation; humidifier fever, influenza, and other infectious diseases|
|Carbon Monoxide (CO)||Gas stoves, malfunctioning gas appliances, wood stoves, tobacco smoke, car or truck exhaust from attached garages||Headache; nausea; angina; difficulty concentrating; death at high concentrations|
|Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS)||Cigarettes, cigars, and pipes||Respiratory irritation, bronchitis and pneumonia in children, emphysema, lung cancer, and heart disease|
|Formaldehyde||Pressed wood products such as plywood and particleboard, furnishings; wallpaper; durable press fabrics; personal care products||Eye, nose, and throat irritation; headache; allergic reactions; cancer|
|Lead||Sanding or open-flame burning of lead paint; house dust||Nerve and brain damage, particularly in children; anaemia; kidney damage; cardiovascular effects; growth retardation|
|Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)||Gas stoves, malfunctioning gas appliances||Eye, nose, and throat irritation; lung irritation and damage; increased respiratory infections in children|
|Organic Chemicals||Solvents, glues, cleaning agents, pesticides, paints, moth repellents, air fresheners, dry-cleaned clothing, and treated water||Eye, nose, and throat irritation; headaches; loss of coordination; damage to liver, kidney and brain; various types of cancer|
|Ozone (O3)||Ozone-generating indoor air cleaners, hobbies involving soldering or welding||Respiratory tract (lung) irritation and inflammation, serious breathing difficulty including asthma, permanent lung damage|
|Particulate Matter (PM)||Cigarettes, wood stoves, fireplaces, cooking, vacuuming, burning candles and incense, products of reactions of ozone with fragrances||Eye, nose and throat irritation; worsening of asthma; increased respiratory disease; lung cancer; cardiovascular disease; premature death|
|Phthalates||Used to soften plastics and add flexibility [i.e., polyvinyl chloride (PVC)]; plastic children’s toys; cosmetics and personal care products (i.e., to make fragrances last longer); automotive (e.g., air filters, battery covers) and building/construction products; and food and beverage packaging||Associated with asthma and respiratory symptoms, allergies, and rhinitis in some studies; reproductive and developmental problems, especially in children under 3 years of age|
|Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDE)||Flame retardants in foams in furniture and automobiles, electronic printed circuit boards, electronics casings, carpet backing, upholstery||Disrupt thyroid hormones, may cause developmental deficits, may act as a reproductive toxin, and may cause cancer|
|Radon||Soil under buildings, some earth-derived construction materials, and groundwater||Lung cancer|
*Depends on factors such as the amount of pollutant inhaled, the duration of exposure and susceptibility of the individual exposed.